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Using Raspberry Pi as a base station for TinyTX

The guys at OpenEnergyMonitor were kind enough to send me a prototype of their new RFM12Pi board a few weeks ago, this handy little kit allows our favourite low power radio board to be connected to the immensely popular Raspberry Pi.  This makes setting up a tiny little server for receiving data from the OEM emonTX or my own TinyTX sensor boards very easy and negates the need for a separate internet gateway device such as a NanodeRF. If you want a local back end solution rather than a remote server it’s ideal.

While everyone else was struggling with interrupt issues when trying to get the RFM12B to work directly with the Pi, Martin went instead for the simple method of using an ATtiny84 to receive the data from the RF module and then spit it out to the Pi’s UART. A PHP script on the Pi then receives this, correctly formats it and sends it on to emoncms. Simple but effective and allows the tried and tested JeeLib RF12 library to be used on the ATtiny.

The board comes as a kit which shouldn’t take more than 10 minutes to put together and then just plugs onto the GPIO headers of the Raspberry Pi. Assuming you already have the Raspbian Linux distro installed on your Pi all you need to do is install emoncms (+ Apache, PHP and MySQL if not already installed), the PECL PHP serial module and the Raspberry Pi emoncms Module and you will be receiving data from your nodes in no time. Follow the complete setup instructions here.

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Using a Parrot DF3120 Picture Frame as a Status Display

The Parrot DF3120 is a rather old 3.5″ LCD picture frame with a 320×240 64K colour display, nothing to shout about but there are a few things that make it a bit more interesting. For starters it has built in bluetooth, USB, an SD card reader, a tilt sensor, a light sensor and three buttons on the back. The CPU is an ARM9 based Samsung s3c2412 running at 266 mhz and there is 8MB RAM and 32MB Flash, best of all it has long ago been hacked to run Linux.

Unfortunately they don’t seem to be sold new any more and eBay seems the only place they sometimes come up, they are cheap though, I picked a brand new one up for £10 + postage.

Here is how I have set one up to connect to a Linux box via USB for use as a status display. The picture to the right shows it running htop on a Raspberry Pi but there is nothing Pi specific here.

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Raspberry Pi and I2C devices of different voltage

After my recent posts on using the MCP23017 I/O expander with the Raspberry Pi several people have queried the connection of an I2C device running at 5v to the Raspberry Pi’s 3v3 I/O. The reason why this is safe in this case is that on an I2C bus the clock and data lines are open-drain lines that are pulled high and devices on the I2C bus pull them low to communicate, in this case the Pi is pulling the lines to 3v3 and it and the MCP23017 pull them low, this means the Pi is never exposed to the 5v supplying the MCP23017. As long as the slave device is happy to register the 3v3 as a high then everything will work fine.

In my testing the Pi has worked flawlessly with the MCP23017 like this although as Selsinork pointed out in the comments on this post it is strictly speaking out of spec, a high shouldn’t really be any lower than 4v for the MCP23017 so in theory using 3v3 could cause reliability problems, it’s perfectly safe as far as the possibility of causing damage to the Pi is concerned though. That said, it does work in practice although YMMV and I suspect if you tried adding more MCP23017s or distanced it from the Pi that reliability would drop off rapidly.

One way I had thought of to fix this had it been a problem was to use a bi-directional buffer IC such as the P82B96 at a cost of a few pounds but Selsinork tipped me off to a very cheap way to do this with just a couple of n-channel FETs, I looked it up and found this document which contains a diagram (page 43) showing how easily it can be done:

This would certainly be an easy and cheap fix if reliability became a problem.

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Raspberry Pi I/O Expander Board

To simplify using the the MCP23017 I/O Expander on the Raspberry Pi I’ve made a little plug in board using a  Slice of Pi from Ciseco. The Slice of Pi is a handy little PCB that plugs directly onto the Raspberry Pi’s GPIO pins and gives a convenient row of labelled standard 0.1 inch (2.54mm) headers for the built in GPIO, SPI and I2C pins, a small prototyping area and optionally headers for plugging in an XBee style wireless devices such as the XRF, XBee, RN-XV etc. It’s not expensive at £3.90 plus postage either. (Update 27/7/12 – Ciseco are now doing an MCP23017 specific board called the Slice of PI/O, here is a comparison of the two)

I’ve fitted a 28 pin DIL socket to it for the MCP23017 and connected power and the SCL and SDA pins from the Pi as well as the required lines to switch it on and set the I2C address (fixed to 0×20). I’ve also added two sets of 0.1″ headers for the 16 I/O pins.

The result is a simple plug in expander board that can provide up to 16 inputs or outputs that can sink or source up to 25mA each, more than the 16mA of the Pi’s own GPIO pins and safer, the MCP23017 costs less than £1 and if you do accidentally blow it up and can just be popped out and a new one popped in. Along with the Python tools I’m working on I’m hoping this will be useful to help provide a simple, low cost and relatively safe way for people to experiment with connecting other hardware to the Raspberry Pi.

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Edimax EW-7811Un Wi-Fi Adapter on the Raspberry Pi

This dinky little USB Wi-Fi adapter seems like a good match for the Raspberry Pi, it seems silly to have a huge dongle sticking out of something so small and this little thing really is tiny, it’s only £10 including delivery on eBay too and will work on the Pi without a powered hub.

I checked the list on the excellent eLinux wiki to see if it was known to work on the Pi and there was even a link to a handy guide to setting it up, it’s all pretty straightforward except that the standard rtl8192cu kernel driver doesn’t work, the guide included a download for one that did but it was only a binary for the 3.1.9 kernel that the Raspberry Pi Debian image uses out of the box and as I’m using this 3.2.18+ kernel with I2C support it was no good to me and there was no link to the source so I could build my own.

I tried the one on the Edimax website which was the same as the version on the CD included with the dongle but it was too old and wouldn’t compile against a 3.2 kernel. After a bit of searching I found a newer one for a different adapter using the same chipset and that worked with only a couple of tiny modifications.

I’ve uploaded the source here in case anyone else finds themselves in the same situation, it cross compiles fine with: make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabi- KSRC=/path/to/kernel/source KVER=kernel version  and you can then follow the above guide for the rest.

Here is the compiled version for a 3.2.18 kernel and also a compiled version of the complete 3.2.18 kernel and modules for the Raspberry Pi (with I2C driver).

Python tools for the MCP23017 I/O Expander

I’ve been playing around with the MCP23017 I2C I/O Expander on my Raspberry Pi a bit more this week and as I mentioned in an update to the last post I’m now running this 3.2 kernel that has hardware I2C drivers for the Pi. The next step was finding a better way to control the expander than using i2c-tools.

Python isn’t something I’ve really used much before but there is a nice python-smbus module that makes interfacing with I2C devices relatively straightforward so that’s what I’ve used to knock up a couple of simple tools to control the MCP23017.

The first one is a command line tool that allows you to set any of the 16 IO pins as high or low, usage is: mcp23017.py -b <bank> -o <output> -s <high|low>

eg. to set GPA1 high it would be: mcp23017.py -b a -o 1 -s high

This gives a response of: Output GPA1 changed to high

The code is on GitHub here, other than a working I2C setup all you will need are the Python bindings for SMBus which are in the python-smbus package on Debian.

The second tool is a simple web interface built using WSGI, something I’ve never used before – it’s basically CGI for Python.

The web tool can be controlled through its own built in web form (very simple but good enough for demo purposes and can be built on) or via GET requests with optional JSON style responses which will allow it to be easily integrated into other projects.

eg. to set output GPA1 high: http://rpi/mcp23017.wsgi?bank=a&output=1&state=high&mode=json

This gives a JSON like response of: {“GPA1″:”HIGH”}

I want to extend this now to cater for input as well as output and to report on the current state of the outputs.

The code for this is also on GitHub and as well as the python-smbus module you will need apache with mod-wsgi, if you get permission errors make sure that the apache user (www-data on Debian) has permissions to read/write to the i2c bus dev entry, eg. /dev/i2c-0

UPDATE 2/6/12: I’ve created a plug in expander board using the Ciseco “Slice of Pi” and the MCP23017, see this post for details and a step by step guide to getting it working with the above Python tools including a link to a Raspberry Pi kernel/modules with I2C compiled in.

Raspberry Pi and the MCP23017 I2C I/O Expander

I had a quick play with the I2C drivers that are currently being developed for the Raspberry Pi this afternoon and managed to get a MCP23017 16-bit I/O Expander working with it without any fuss.

Here is a highly exciting video of it blinking an LED:

The MCP23017 is a handy 28 pin chip that gives you 16 pins that can be used as either inputs or outputs (max 25mA from each pin) and up to 8 of the MCP23017 can be used on one I2C bus so it can give you a whole lot more I/O than the Pi has built in as well as reducing the risk of frying the Pi and also has the added advantage that the expander can be located away from the Pi linked with only four wires. There is also the smaller MCP23008 which is an 8 I/O version that can be used in the same way. They are both available in DIP form making it easy for building your own boards with and experimenting on breadboard. Here is the datasheet for the MCP23017.

Read on for some info on what is required to get this working.

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Raspberry Pi Finally Arrives

After a long wait the Raspberry Pi I ordered from Farnell on 29th February finally arrived yesterday.

I expect that most people reading this blog knows all about the Raspberry Pi and the charity behind it by now, designed with the aim to bring programming back into the school curriculum and spawn a new generation of coders, it’s had some fantastic news coverage and even people with no idea about computers have mentioned it to me over the last few months. It has been a rocky road, originally it was expected to have been released in late 2011 but finally the much anticipated single board computer has started to be delivered into the eager hands of geeks around the world. Initially only a caseless version of the “Model B” is available, intended for early adopters and developers with a fully cased version being launched for education later in the year. The idea being that by the time it reaches the hands of school children there will already be a healthy eco system built up around it and those preparing educational material will have been able to do so.

At the moment I am just familiarising myself with it and getting a grasp of what it is capable of. I’m running Debian Squeeze on it as that’s my distro of choice for servers and the like anyway and is also what the Raspberry Pi team are currently recommending. As a desktop it’s usable but pretty sluggish, perhaps not as much as expected but it’s potential for me lies more in the home automation and IoT field, £30 for a tiny networked Linux box is unbeatable and with up to 17 GPIO pins, built in UART and support for I2C and SPI it also opens up a lot of possibilities for interfacing to other hardware, a number of expansion boards are already available or in the pipeline. Here is a good primer on Getting Started with Raspberry Pi GPIO and Python.